The new elite
This special report is about global leaders, but mostly not the sort you have heard of, such as presidents and pop stars. Instead, it looks at the people who shape the world without anyone noticing: those with enough brains, money or influence to affect the lives of large numbers of others. These three things often go hand in hand, but not always.
Some people are influential because they have compelling ideas or are skilled at popularising other peoples. The brainy toilers at think-tanks in Washington, DC, do not earn nearly enough to be admitted to Tiger 21, but they wield immense influence over public policy. The propagandists of al-Qaeda live in caves, but affect the lives of people everywhere.
Societies have always had elites. For most of history and in most countries, power was seized by force of arms and passed down from father to son. Fear and heredity still play a role. Chinas ruling party remains in charge because it jails and occasionally kills those who threaten it. America elected two presidents named George Bush and came close to electing two Clintons.
The big change over the past century is that elites are increasingly meritocratic and global. The richest people in advanced countries are not aristocrats but entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates (pictured above with his wife and partner in philanthropy, Melinda). The most influential are those whose inventions change lives in many countries (think of Facebook) or whose ideas are persuasive (think of Amnesty International).
This special report will examine how influence is wielded. It will look at the minds that shape politics, business and technology, and it will describe the gatherings where influential people swap ideas, from the World Economic Forum in Davos to Nathan Myhrvolds invention sessions in Seattle.
The global elite are a cosmopolitan bunch, yet they are far from rootless. Indian tycoons forge deals with ethnic Indians throughout the world. Chinese scientists in Beijing collaborate with Chinese scientists in Cambridge. The report will show how money, ideas and influence flow through the worlds diaspora networks.
It will also look at inequality, which has risen relentlessly in most rich countries even as they have become more meritocratic. Clever, well-educated people are increasingly marrying each other and raising clever, well-educated children. The children of ordinary households find it hard to compete with them. A new aristocracy of merit is emerging. That has social consequences for everybody.
Serious thinkers sometimes exaggerate the clout of the few. David Rothkopfs book Superclass: The Global Power Elite and the World They Are Making is thoughtful and well researched, but his breathless description of how a mere 6,000 politicians, chief executives and other bigwigs run the world misses an important point. In democracies at least, the few are often at the mercy of the many. Voters can get rid of politicians they dislike. Consumers will stop buying a companys products the moment something better or cheaper comes along. In a democracy with a competitive economy, power is hard to maintain without pleasing others.
In China the rules are different. Economic growth has lifted hundreds of millions of Chinese people out of poverty and made Chinas coastal cities rich. But the Chinese elite depends too much on the coercive power of the Communist Party for its wealth and influence. The system of hukou (residence permits) creates two classes of citizen, urban and rural. As in South Africa under apartheid, those on top dictate where those at the bottom may live and work, suppressing their wages and providing themselves with cheap servants. This cannot last.
As Mr Gallaghers story shows, the rich are as vulnerable as the rest of us, yet they lead separate lives. In Richistan, a book written before the financial crisis, Robert Frank observed that wealthy people have built a self-contained world unto themselves, complete with their own health-care system (concierge doctors), travel network (NetJets, destination clubs), separate economy and language (Whos your household manager?).
Rich folk affect the rest of us in two big ways. First, the way they spend their money has all kinds of ripple effects. Their hunches move markets. Their consumption supports a whole sub-economy of hoteliers, watchmakers and financial advisers. And their philanthropy funds schools, pressure groups and research into tropical diseases.
The second, and more important, way is that to become rich in the first place, they typically have to do something extraordinary. Some inherit their money, of course, but most build a better mousetrap, finance someone elses good idea or at least run a chain of hairdressers in a way that keeps customers coming back. And because they are mostly self-made, todays rich are restless, dynamic and much keener on change than the aristocrats of old. (1.20.2011) http://www.economist.com/node/17929075
"To Achieve World
Government it is necessary to remove from the minds of men their individualism,
their loyalty to family traditions and national identification" Brock Chisholm - Director of the World Health Organization
"A society whose citizens refuse to see and investigate the facts, who refuse to believe that their government and their media will routinely lie to them and fabricate a reality contrary to verifiable facts, is a society that chooses and deserves the Police State Dictatorship it's going to get." Ian Williams Goddard
The fact is that "political correctness" is all about creating uniformity. Individualism is one of the biggest obstacles in the way of the New World Order. They want a public that is predictable and conditioned to do as it's told without asking questions.
"The two enemies of the people are criminals and government, so let us tie the second down with the chains of the Constitution so the second will not become the legalized version of the first." Thomas Jefferson